Washington Energy Department seeks businesses for energy-efficiency program

OLYMPIA – Fifty-four Washington businesses saved millions by reducing the amount of electricity and natural gas they use. These businesses increased their bottom lines by collaborating with Department of Ecology engineers in the Technical Resources for Engineering Efficiency (TREE) program.


Since 2008, Ecology has offered energy-efficiency consulting and is now seeking new projects for late 2014 through the first half of 2015. Participating businesses have collectively saved $2.78 million in annual energy savings from reducing electricity usage by 25 million kilowatt-hours and cutting natural gas consumption by 141 billion BTU. Taken together, those projects prevent 22,500 metric tons of carbon from entering the atmosphere every year.


Last week, Gov. Jay Inslee proposed a toxics reduction plan to help the state eliminate hazardous chemicals from our air and water by reducing impacts from unregulated sources, such as consumer products. Part of that proposal expands partnerships with industry to increase efficiency, save money, and reduce emissions and the use of toxic chemicals.


Gov. Inslee’s proposal builds on Ecology’s technical assistance services like the energy-efficiency program. Ecology also teams with businesses to prevent pollution, reduce toxic waste and emissions, and offer Lean and Green consulting. These programs work with a range of industries, such as metal finishing, production painting and coating operations, chemical blending, food processing, and most manufacturers.


Redhook Brewery in Woodinville recently partnered with Ecology. “We strive to make our beers in a manner that minimizes our environmental impact,” said Julia Pearson, sustainability manager. “We are continually searching for efficiency opportunities around our energy usage, and Ecology’s assistance was key this last year. The team helped us uncover some simple, quick fixes that translated into big dollar savings.”


Ecology also works with the Washington State University Extension Energy Program, Impact Washington, and local utilities to ensure businesses receive the services they need.


If your business could benefit from a professional energy audit, contact Tony Cooper at tony.cooper@ecy.wa.gov or (360) 407-6338, or your local electric utility.

Results of retail marijuana store license lottery announced

The Washington State Liquor Control Board (WSLCB) today posted the results of marijuana retail store lotteries on the public records section of its website. Earlier this week applicants were notified of their standing on each ranked-ordered list produced by 75 lotteries. *
The independent, double-blind process took place April 21-25, 2014, and produced ordered lists of applicants that the agency will use to continue its retail licensing process. If an applicant is within the maximum allotted number of stores allotted for that jurisdiction but fails to pass the licensing process, the WSCLB will withdraw the application and move to the next license application on the list.

Jurisdictions Requiring a Lottery
1,174 applicants were included in the lottery

o    75 jurisdictions required a lottery
o    47 jurisdictions did not require a lottery

The agency contracted with the Social and Economic Sciences Research Center of Washington State University and the accounting firm for Washington’s Lottery, Kraght-Snell of Seattle, to independently produce rank-ordered lists of applicants in each jurisdiction where a lottery is necessary. Being identified as the apparent successful applicant is not a guarantee that the selected applicant will receive a license. There are multiple requirements for licensure such as the applicant must pass a criminal history and financial investigation as well as have a location that is not within 1,000 feet of a school, park or other area specified by Initiative 502 as places where children congregate.

Next Steps
The agency has begun processing the retail applications. Licensing staff will continue to process producer, processor and retailer simultaneously. As of April 30, the WSLCB has issued 25 producer and processor licenses. The agency expects to begin issuing retail licenses no later than the first week of July. 

* The lottery results for Longview were stayed by the Cowlitz County Superior Court pending a May 7, 2014 hearing.

WDFW will hold two public meetings on hoof disease in S.W. Washington

OLYMPIA – State wildlife managers believe they are close to determining the cause of hoof disease in southwest Washington elk and plan to hold two meetings in April to share results to date and answer questions from the public.

The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has scheduled public meetings at the following times and locations:

  • Vancouver – April 15, 6-8 p.m., Community Room, 1200 Fort Vancouver Way.
  • Chehalis – April 16, 6-8 p.m., V.R. Lee Community Building (Recreation Park), 221 S.W. 13th Street.

Sandra Jonker, WDFW regional wildlife manager, said department staff will discuss results to date of ongoing tests designed to identify the cause of deformed or missing hooves in elk, primarily in Cowlitz, Pacific and Wahkiakum counties.

Since 2009, WDFW has collected tissue samples from 43 elk for testing at diagnostic laboratories at Washington State University, Colorado State University, the University of Wyoming, the USDA National Animal Disease Center and the University of Liverpool in England.

Jonker said recent tests of diseased hooves point to the presence of treponeme bacteria, which have been linked to hoof disease in cows and sheep in many parts of the world.

“It’s premature to announce a final diagnosis, but tests from three independent diagnostic labs appear to show an association between the diseased hooves and the presence of treponeme bacteria,” Jonker said. “That’s a real concern, because the options for treating the disease are extremely limited.”

Kristin Mansfield, WDFW epidemiologist, said treponemes have been linked to an increasing incidence of hoof disease in livestock for two decades, but have never been documented in elk or other wildlife.

There is no evidence that these bacteria are harmful to humans, she said, noting that tests indicate the disease is limited to hooves and does not affect the animals’ meat or organs.

Mansfield said scientists believe animals pick up and transmit the disease through wet soil, characteristic of the lowlands of southwest Washington. Livestock infected with treponeme bacteria may respond to repeated courses of antibiotics, but frequently become re-infected once they are returned to pasture, she said.

“Unfortunately, there is no vaccine for this disease,” she said. “Livestock that don’t respond to treatment or become re-infected after treatment are usually sent to market and slaughtered.”

For purposes of comparison, WDFW has collected elk from areas both affected and not affected by the disease, Jonker said. Testing of tissues taken from 11 elk in January will help determine whether treponemes are the primary cause of the disease or opportunistic bacteria that invade hooves that are already damaged, she said.

“Test results taken from those samples are due this summer, and should help us answer an important question about this disease,” Jonker said.

Meanwhile, WDFW is developing a management approach based on input from WDFW staff and two advisory groups created to help guide the department’s course:

  • A 14-member technical advisory group, established to recommend diagnostic approaches, will assess findings of the diagnostic laboratories and advise on disease control options. The group is composed of veterinarians from universities, government agencies and local veterinary practices in Washington and other states.
  • An 18-member public working group, made up of people from southwest Washington, is working with WDFW to share information and discuss management and research needs. The advisory group includes county commissioners, public and private landowners, hunters, sportsman groups, local business owners, and others concerned about the area elk herd.

“As with many wildlife diseases, there are no easy answers to this problem,” Jonker said. “But we need to be ready to take action, because doing nothing is not an option.”

As a precautionary measure, WDFW will ask the Washington Fish and Wildlife Commission to adopt a new regulation requiring hunters to remove the hooves of any elk taken in southwest Washington and leave them in the area to prevent the disease from spreading.

In addition to the two public meetings sponsored by WDFW, wildlife managers will also participate in meetings sponsored by county officials concerned about hoof disease. Those meetings are scheduled at the following times and places:

  • Longview – March 27, 6-8 p.m., Cowlitz County Conference Center, 1900 7th Ave.
  • Cathlamet – April 2, 6 p.m., River Street Meeting Room, 25 River St.

To learn more about hoof disease or report a sighting, see WDFW’s website at

Risky business becomes rewarding enterprise for hosts of Aberdeen wine bar

ABERDEEN, Wash. – Wine bars are a risky business, especially in a small town. When the local supermarket has a good selection of decent wines for under $15, wine bars have an uphill battle to bring in sufficient customers to pay the bills.

That’s why Erik Stewart, a certified business advisor with the Washington Small Business Development Center (SBDC), was thrilled when he walked into GH Wine Sellars on Broadway in Aberdeen recently.

“It was standing room only,” he said. People were elbow to elbow at the bar, where patrons are offered sample tastings of several wines before they make a selection.

‘Feels like home’

It’s not standing room only every night, but owners Karen and Ryan Rowe have created a community gathering spot since they opened for business in June 2013. During the Christmas holidays they booked nearly a dozen private parties, and GH Wine Sellars continues to be a go-to location for meeting a friend or celebrating a special occasion.

“The reason for their success is their personalities,” Stewart said. “They are the most wonderful hosts. You walk in and you feel like you’re getting a hug.”

The Facebook reviews are glowing as well: “Feels like home.” “Amazing atmosphere.” “OUTSTANDING!”

That feels-like-home ambience was the vision from the start, Karen Rowe said, because Aberdeen is home for both her and Ryan. Many of their customers are longtime friends or friends of friends.

The way they are treated at the wine bar is pretty much the way they’d be treated if they were at the Rowes’ home: “We want people to come in and sit, relax and enjoy a nice glass of wine,” Karen Rowe said.

Start with market research

The rustic interior features a fireplace, couches and armchairs arranged for intimate tête-à-têtes as well as after-work happy hours. Those who choose to stand can enjoy the craftsmanship of the mixed-wood bar that Ryan Rowe made.

Open 3-9 p.m. Monday-Thursday and noon-9 p.m. Friday-Saturday, GH Wine Sellars serves more than 80 wines, including a large selection from Washington state. The wine bar also offers limited food service, focusing on simple but tasty appetizers.

While Stewart has become a fan of the business as well as a customer, Karen Rowe enjoys joking with him that he started out as a skeptic. The Rowes first contacted the SBDC in 2010 when they were considering a shop at Westport, Wash., and thought they might need an SBA loan. Karen Rowe recalls Stewart saying, “Yeah, that’s not going to work at all, but I’ll help you any way I can.”

She laughs when she tells the story – and Stewart laughs when he hears it – but he insists it is an apocryphal tale.

“I would never tell a client that their idea won’t work,” Stewart said, “but I did urge them to do extensive market research into wine bars in general and wine shops on the Olympic Peninsula in particular.”

Small town, large volume

While many clients first contact the SBDC for help with loan applications, the SBDC provides confidential, no cost, one-to-one advising on just about any issue critical to starting, growing or transitioning a small business.

The Washington SBDC (www.wsbdc.org) is hosted by Washington State University and receives support from the U.S. Small Business Administration. Additional support comes from local economic development agencies and institutions of higher education.

In fact, opening a wine bar is a difficult proposition and Stewart knew it. He ran one of the largest retail wine programs in Tacoma in the 1980s.

The problem, he said, is that wine bars typically have limited seating and often depend on high volume to cover the costs – volume Stewart was concerned could not be generated in a small town.

Right location, careful accounting

The Rowes decided to skip the Westport deal because of a family crisis, but they continued to explore other wine bar opportunities over the next two years. For one reason or another nothing panned out.

But in March 2013 Karen Rowe was driving through downtown Aberdeen and saw a “For Rent” sign on the corner of Wishkah and Broadway in the old Elks Building. That changed everything. The sign, she said, was a sign.

“I had told Ryan, if we are doing it in Aberdeen, it had to be in that building,” she said.

Stewart was still skeptical, Karen Rowe said, but she appreciated his playing the devil’s advocate.

“Having your own business is not easy,” she said. “It takes all of your days and all of your nights.” The fact that Stewart wasn’t simply a booster who downplayed the risks helped them strengthen their business plan, she said.

Stewart stressed that since their margins would be thin, they needed to account for every penny, a concept well known to Ryan Rowe, who is an accountant by trade.

“He got it,” Stewart said.

Dream come true

With Stewart’s background in wine, he was a great resource for everything from how to talk about wine to how to pour it to how to price it.

“Erik gave us things to think about that we would never have thought about,” Karen Rowe said – “some of the little things that can make or break your business.”

There were little things (that can easily become big things) like having to pay an ASCAP licensing fee if they wanted to play music in the bar. And there were big things like how to manage their inventory so they weren’t leaving wine in bottles that eventually would be discarded.

Stewart is thrilled that the Rowes are off to a great start. Detailed and rigorous accounting systems coupled with outstanding customer service are making the difference, he said: “They are doing a lot of things right – and they are happy.”

Karen Rowe agreed she and her husband are happy – happy to be back in Aberdeen and happy to be the owners of the wine bar they first dreamed about nearly a decade ago.

For more information about GH Wine Sellars, go to the Facebook page at https://www.facebook.com/pages/GH-Wine-Sellars/135449866661036.  

Find this news release at WSU News online at http://bit.ly/1g56N4O

DNR says groundbreaking research could save Washington Douglas fir

OLYMPIA – The Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR) today announced the publication of an important new scientific report on root rot diseases in Douglas fir trees by a Study Committee of the Washington State Academy of Sciences. DNR requested the report to better understand and address root rot diseases that threaten Douglas fir, which are a vital economic and ecological resource in Washington.


The commercial harvest of Douglas fir on DNR-managed, state-owned public land in the 2011-2013 biennium accounted for  an estimated 800 million board feet of harvested timber and $250 million in non-tax revenue for DNR’s trust beneficiaries, which include public schools and universities.


“We thank the Washington Academy of Sciences and the esteemed scientists working under its auspices for completing this groundbreaking report,” said Commissioner of Public Lands Peter Goldmark. “With the leadership of Study Committee Chair Dr. R. James Cook of Washington State University, they have produced an important road map to guide scientific inquiry and the response to tree parasites and disease that threaten the ecological health of Washington’s forests and the economic vitality of the communities that rely upon them.”


The Study Committee’s report, entitled Opportunities for Addressing Laminated Root Rot Caused by Phellinus Sulphurascens in Washington’s Forests, recommends consideration of several approaches to manage laminated root rot. The Committee also stressed the need for further molecular biology research, noting that a robust understanding of the full life cycle of tree-root pathogens and their host interactions can lead to innovative ways to exploit deviations in disease infection and tree mortality.


“The importance of molecular research on tree-root pathogens to our state and region cannot be overstated, and we urge research universities to devote resources and expertise to developing this emerging area of study,” said Dr. Cook. “I look forward to continued work with DNR on this issue, and I am pleased that the agency is under the effective leadership of Commissioner Goldmark, himself a molecular biologist with a keen interest in cutting-edge research.”


A copy of the report is available at the Academy website: http://www.washacad.org/initiatives/files/WSAS_Laminated_Root_Rot_%202013.pdf.


Washington State Academy of Sciences Study Committee

Members of the Study Committee include: R. James Cook, Chair, University of Washington; Robert L. Edmonds, University of Washington; Ned. B. Klopfenstein, USDA Forest Service; Willis Littke, Weyerhaeuser Company; Geral McDonald, USDA Forest Service; Daniel Omdal, DNR; Karen Ripley, DNR; Charles G. “Terry” Shaw, New Zealand and US Forest Services; Rona Sturrock, Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre; and Paul Zambino, USDA Forest Service.


Commissioner Goldmark would like to thank all of the Study Committee members and their collaborators on behalf of the citizens of Washington.


About the Washington State Academy of Sciences

The Washington State Academy of Sciences provides expert scientific and engineering analysis to inform public policy-making, and works to increase the role and visibility of science in the State of Washington. Learn more at: http://www.washacad.org.

College Transfer Fair at Grays Harbor College

Grays Harbor College hosts the annual College Transfer Fair from 10 a.m. to 1 p.m. on Thursday (Jan 16) in the HUB on the main campus in Aberdeen. Representatives from 17 regional colleges and universities will be participating, including Oregon Institute of Technology, which has not visit the Harbor in many years.

Other participants will include Art Institute of Seattle, City University of Seattle, Central Washington University, the Evergreen State College, Fashion Institute of Design and Merchandizing, International Academy of Design and Technology, Northwest University, Pacific Lutheran University, University of Phoenix, St. Martin’s University, University of Washington/Bothell and UW/Tacoma, Washington State University, WSU/Tri-Cities, WSU/Vancouver and Western Governors University.

Those interested in learning more about transferring to one of these colleges or universities are encouraged to visit GHC on Thursday.

Cantwell, FAA Announce Groundbreaking Hub to Launch New Era in Jet Biofuels Development

Cantwell, Senator Patty Murray (D-WA) and the entire Washington delegation sent a letter to the FAA in April supporting WSU’s proposal.

Cantwell wrote language to create the new FAA Center of Excellence in the FAA reauthorization bill of 2012. The announcement marks a major FAA long-term public-private investment in jet biofuel research, with the new Center of Excellence in Alternative Jet Fuels and Environment funded at $40 million over the next 10 years. It will be matched 1-to-1 with $40 million from industry partners.

The coalition of 16 universities and 26 industry and federal partners and stakeholders includes numerous members in Washington state: the University of Washington, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Alaska Airlines, Boeing, Weyerhaeuser, the Port of Seattle, Spokane International Airport, Imperium Renewables and InnovaTek.

“As the longtime home of our nation’s aerospace industry, Washington state has always been on the cutting edge of new technology that makes American planes better, safer, and more efficient, and I’m thrilled Washington State University will continue that proud tradition as home for the new Air Transportation Center of Excellence for alternate jet fuels and the environment,” said Senator Patty Murray. “Developing new alternative jet fuels is crucial for the airline industry, our military, and our environment, and the FAA made the right decision to base this important research where it belongs, in Washington state.”

As the Chair of the Senate Appropriations Transportation Subcommittee, Senator Murray has fought to include funding for the Air Transportation Center of Excellence in the Senate spending bill two years in row. Throughout the selection process, Senator Murray spoke directly with FAA Administrator Huerta several times to advocate on behalf of WSU’s application.

For more than a decade, WSU has provided technical leadership to the Pacific Northwest region and to the nation in alternative fuels for aircraft. The WSU team will focus on feedstock development, sustainable forest production and establishing new methods to identify the most promising plant lines for biofuel conversion.

“Washington state is already the aerospace capital of the world,” said Rep. Rick Larsen, WA-02, the top Democrat on the House Aviation Subcommittee. “This national center of excellence will put people to work making our state the base for innovation that will reshape aviation in the 21st century. The center will combine our state’s unmatched strength in aviation engineering with our unrivaled commitment to protecting the environment.”

The top 40 airports around the country use approximately 90 percent of America’s jet fuel. The Center will coordinate a regional approach to meet the needs of different hubs across the country. WSU and the other universities chosen as partners have expertise and experience with woody biomass feedstocks of native trees to their respective regions.

“We thank Senator Maria Cantwell for her leadership in making the FAA Center of Excellence a reality. It’s terrific win for Washington State University and the Pacific Northwest, and it further validates our region as the leader in the development of sustainable aviation biofuel,” said Mike Bair, Vice President of Marketing and Business Development for Boeing Commercial Airplanes. “State-of-the-art research conducted by the Center of Excellence will advance the commercialization of aviation biofuel. This fuel will play a crucial role in supporting our industry’s long-term growth while reducing its carbon emissions.”

“Airlines for America is a strong proponent of increasing our nation’s energy security and developing sustainable alternative aviation fuels,” said Nicholas E. Calio, President and CEO of Airlines for America. “We applaud the efforts of Sen. Cantwell, who is a longtime advocate for jet biofuels and their potential for the aviation sector.”

“We are thrilled to learn the FAA has selected Washington State University to lead the Center of Excellence, and we thank Senator Cantwell for her leadership in making this possible. With this investment, our region will continue to play a critical role in advancing the development of aviation biofuels,” said Keith Loveless, Alaska Air Group’s executive vice president and general counsel and executive sponsor of Alaska’s sustainability program. “Using sustainable aviation fuels reflects our commitment to be the industry leader in environmental stewardship.”

“Washington state is poised to lead the nation is tackling this critical scientific challenge,” Cantwell continued. “Biofuel research brings together Washington state’s leaders in aviation, innovation and agriculture. This Center will propel Washington state’s innovation economy to the forefront of the emerging biofuels industry.”

WSU President Elson S. Floyd said that “competing for and winning the Center of Excellence designation reaffirms the State of Washington and Washington State University as international leaders in aviation and the development of alternative jet fuels. We, along with our university and industry partners, stand ready to deliver the new science, advanced technology and educated workforce the industry will need to be globally competitive. I especially want to thank Sens. Cantwell and Murray, and our entire Congressional delegation for their support of our proposal for the center designation.”

“The airlines are looking for ways to reduce their greenhouse gas footprint, and this center of excellence will play a big role in doing just that,” said John Holladay, manager of the Biomass Sector at PNNL.

Washington state is home to leaders in the research, development and use of aviation biofuels. Notable successes include:
In July 2010, Boeing, Alaska Airlines, the operators of the region’s three largest airports – Port of Seattle, Port of Portland and Spokane International Airport, and Washington State University launched Sustainable Aviation Fuels Northwest. The coalition is the nation’s first regional stakeholder effort to explore the opportunities of aviation biofuels.
In September 2011, a research team led by WSU received a $40 million USDA grant to convert closed timber mills into bioenergy development centers. The UW also received a $40 million USDA grant to research the use of sustainably grown woody energy crops to produce bio-gasoline and renewable aviation fuel.
In November 2011, Alaska Air conducted 75 commercial flights over a two-week period in which each plane used a 20 percent mixture of aviation biofuel.

Cantwell, along with Senator Patty Murray (D-WA), introduced legislation in May 2011 to extend the length of contracts between the Department of Defense and biofuel producers from the current limit of 5 years to 15 years. Allowing for longer-term contracts with the largest single consumer of energy in the country would help companies in Washington state to obtain the financing they need to grow their operations.

Grays Harbor College Speakers’ Committee Hosts “Jeff Salz”

To introduce Salz, a community panel is being assembled to offer further advice to the audience.  Panel members will include Shane Voss, College student body president; Ron Schmidt of WorkSource Grays Harbor; Patti Lignoski, a GHC alum who continued her education at the Evergreen State College and is now director…; Schuyler Hoss of Gov. Gregoire's office; Leroy Tipton of the Grays Harbor Chamber of Commerce; and Ed Brewster, president of the College.

Attendees will also have the opportunity to receive information about educational programs, vocational training, apprenticeships and business development from resources representatives in the Bishop foyer. Agencies will include Grays Harbor College, WorkSource, Washington State University plus its small Business Development program, The Evergreen State College and the Pacific Mountain Workforce Development Council. Refreshments will also be provided.



Jeff Salz's Key Accomplishments Include . . .
Jeff Salz, author of Achieving Personal and Professional Balance, has made a lifetime of adventure. For over three decades, he has led more than 20 mountain expeditions to the Himalayas of Nepal and the Andes of South America. An explorer of uncharted territories and a doctor of anthropology who unearths lost civilizations, Jeff is often referred to as the real-life Indiana Jones. He taught for ten years at San Diego State University, where he was named Outstanding Professor, drawing the university's largest enrollment for a non-required course. With his frequent Discovery and Travel Channel specials plus the CBS News selection as "guest expert" on the hit series "Survivor," Jeff has become a well-known adventure expert around the world.

Know what’s in Your Food – Grow it Yourself!

Knight will have handouts she has written based on her research and questions people have often asked. As a nursery professional certified by the Washington State Nursery & Landscape Association and a Master Gardener certified by the Washington State University Extension Service, Knight offers tremendous expertise.

After each presentation, people can cultivate their new gardening knowledge by checking out library books and DVDs. In addition, librarians have gathered some of the best Web sites on general and northwest gardening at www.trlib.org/gardening.asp.

Click for DirectionsThe Elma Timberland Library is located at 118 N First Street, Elma. For more information, please contact the library at (360) 482-3737 or go to www.TRL.org.

Reed, college students challenge campuses statewide: ‘Find Your One Thing’

Echoing President Obama's national Call to Service, "Find Your One Thing" is Reed's latest effort to get young people involved in their government. On the Web, the public can join the "Find Your One Thing" cause on Facebook and share "one thing" to help their communities. They can also take an online Civics Challenge and see how they stack up against their peers. These online tools can be accessed at www.secstate.wa.gov/elections/collegecivics .

During College Civics Week, campuses will host their own unique events – Reed will participate in a Green Week fashion show at one school, and will kick off a Relay for Life event at another. Other events include classroom chats, civics forums and game shows.

"These are tough times in Washington," said Reed. "We can't afford to be passive anymore – we can't afford to sit back instead of rolling up our sleeves and lending a hand. It's time to take action."

Reed's visits for the week include:

Monday, April 13 -Centralia Community College, Lower Columbia College, Clark College, Washington State University-Vancouver.

Tuesday, April 14 – Pierce College-Steilacoom, Pierce College-Puyallup, Bates Technical College, Green River Community College, Seattle Pacific University.

Wednesday, April 15 – Grays Harbor College, Peninsula College, Northwest Indian College, Western Washington University.

Thursday, April 16 -Central Washington University, Yakima Valley Community College, Washington State University – Tri-Cities, Whitman College, Walla Walla University.

Friday, April 17 – Spokane Falls Community College, Spokane Community College, Gonzaga University, Eastern Washington University, Whitworth College.

College Civics Week is put on by the agency's College Civics Program and funded by the Help America Vote Act (HAVA), a law that was adopted in 2000 to help with voter education. Reed is interested in boosting registration and voter turnout among younger voters, traditionally those with the lowest participation rate of any sector of the voting population.